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If you're still looking, HEMS physician Dr. Mike Abernathy (@FLTDOC1 on Twitter) and EMRAP alum Dr. Howie Mell would be great resources for a discussion about HEMS billing.
I would also like to discuss with you about the HEMS billing problems and background on this. The above two would be great resources as well. Those of us in the industry through the "growth spurt" of for profit HEMS have seen the downside of this and the vast differences in charges and "collections approach" that have occurred since this change started. It is a hugely important topic for our patients. As you alluded it is not a simple topic but important.
Clay Shoveler's Fracture----At a local college I had a dance major, with this fracture. Her position was: head and neck on the floor/stage, neck fully flexed, body extends upward, vertical---and had some dance movements of arms and legs----all her weight on her neck/head---to hold this position for several minutes. Sudden pain, no neurological defects, came to clinic, we only had X-ray---identified it--Philly collar, CT and see the neurosurgeon. I think she recovered well, I am unsure about her dance future.
I currently fly and have flown with not for profit organizations and know first hand as a provider interacting with referring EMS and Hospitals that costs are not often if at all considered. I agree with above comments about the growth of for profit organizations and I would add Dr. Ashley Larrimore MD as a great reference for aviation medicine. I know of one service that cannot over bill insurance, yet other services in the same region can bill at a much higher rate and have placed people in collection. Best advice I can give ER, Hospital, and EMS agencies is investigate for your selves. Get the data of time to definitive care, follow up with the patients and families about the true costs, and if there is an agency that is predatory stop calling if another option exists. The same advice goes for aviation safety. We as referring providers (physicians, EMTs, RNs...) have some ability to address this locally while national advocacy is also an option.
What you do matters.